There are eleven major rivers flowing in the State Odisha, of which the Mahandi is the longest and the Bahuda is the shortest. The rivers of Odisha are mainly rainfed. Brief details of the rivers are given below.
The List of Rivers in Odisha are :
There are four groups of rivers which flow through Odisha (Orissa) into the Bay of Bengal (Table-2). They are :
- Rivers that have a source outside the State (the Subarnarekha, the Brahmani and the Mahanadi).
- Rivers having a source inside the State(the Budhabalanga, the Baitarini, the Salandi, and the Rushikulya).
- Rivers having a source inside the Orissa, but flow through other states (the Bahudu, the Vansadhara, and the Nagavali).
- Rivers having a source inside Orissa, but tributary to rivers which flow through other states (the Machkund, the Sileru, the Kolab, and the Indravati).
It is the major river of Orissa and the sixth largest river in India. It originates from the Amarkantak hills of the Bastar Plateau in Raipur district of Madhya Pradesh. It is about 857 kms. Long (494 kms. In Orissa) and its catchment area spreads over 141,600 sq.kms. (65,580sq.kms.) in Orissa). The river carries on an average about 92,600 million m of water.
It is the second largest river in Orissa. It originates as two major rivers like the Sankh and the Koel from the Chhotanagpur Plateau of Bihar and both join at veda Vyasa near Rourkela of Sundargarh district of Orissa forming the major River Brahmani. It flows through the Easter Ghats in Sundargarh, Kendujhar, Dhenkanal, Cuttack and Jajpur districts into the Coastal Plains and enters into the Bay of Bengal along with a combined mouth with the Mahanadi known as the Dhamra. The Brahmani is 799 kms. Long (541 kms. In Orissa) and its catchment area spreads over 39,033 sq.kms. in Orissa).
It originates from the Gonasika hills of the keonjhar districts. It is 365 kms long and its catchment area spread over 12,790 sq. kms . It entres into the Bay of Bengal after joining of the Brahmani at Dharma mouth near Chandabali Subarnrekha.
It orginates from the Chhotnagpur plateau of Bihar. It is 433kms (70kms in Orissa ) and has a catchment area of 19,500 kms (3,200kms in Orissa ) with a mean annual flow of 7,900 million n.
It orginates from the easterns slops of the Similipala massif. It is about 175 kms long having a total catchment area of 4840 sq. kms with an annual flow of 2177 million m . It is major tributaries are the Sone, the Gangadhar, the Catra etc.
It originates from the Rushyamala hills of the eastern ghats in Phulbani district. It is 165 kms long with 8900 sq. kms of catchment areas. It’s tributaries are the Baghua the Dhanei Badanadi etc. It has no delta at its mouth.
It originates from the Ramgiri hills of the eastern ghats in Gajapati districts and joins the bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh . Its length 73 kms having a catchment area of 1250 sq. kms .
It originates from the Flanks of the Durgakangar hills (Lingaraj hills) of the eastern ghats in Kalahandi districts. It is 230 kms long out of which only 150 kms in Orissa. It entres in to the Bay of Bengal at Kalingapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. It has a catchment area of 11500 sq. kms .
It originates from the Bijipur Hills of the eastern ghats near Lanji garah . It is 210 kms long out of which 100 kms is in Orissa. It has a total catchment area of about 9410 sq. kms.
It originates from the Meghasani Hills of the Similipal massif in Keonjhar district. It is 144 kms long with a catchment areas of 1793 sq. kms .
It originates from the eastern ghats in Kalahandi districts. It is 530 kms long with a catchment area of 41700 sq. kms as a tributary it flows into the Godabari river.
It originates from the Sinkaran hills of the eastern Ghats in koraput districts. It has catchment areas of 20400 sq. kms .